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      24
      2019
      09

      shakuhachi 尺八常用詞匯

      SHAKUHACHI GLOSSARY 尺八詞彙 

      整理:周文壕 本文內容引用自 http://shakuhachisociety.eu/resources/glossary/ 

       

      Ai-no-te (合の手)  – Music performed between vocal sections 聲部之間演奏的音樂 Atari (當り) – To strike a finger hole 打一個手指孔 Ato-Uta (後歌) – Ending vocal section聲部結尾 

       

      Benkyōkai (勉強會) – Study group meeting. In the context of traditional Japanese music, this refers to a day on which students gather to perform the pieces they have been working on for each other. 研究組會議。 在傳統日本音樂的背景下,這是指學生聚集在一起表演自己一直在努力的作品的日子。 Biwa (琵琶) – Japanese necked bowl lute with four or five strings played with a large plectrum. 日本曲頸琵琶,有四到五根弦,彈奏著很大的撥子。 Bokoboko (ボコボコ) – Shakuhachi tremolo technique. 尺八顫音技術。 Boroboro (ボロボロ) – Beggar-monks or ascetics preceding komusō monks of the Fuke sect. They are mentioned in the book Tsurezuregusa from circa 1300. 普化宗的 komusō 僧侶之前的乞-和修行者。 在大約 1300 年的 Tsurezuregusa 一書中提到了它們。 Chikuzen inchinyō  (竹禪一如)  – The bamboo and Zen are as one 竹與禪合一 Chirashi  – Climax of section 高潮部分 

       

      Dai shihan (大師範) – Often translated as grand master, but the meaning is rather grand teacher, instructor or model. 通常翻譯為大師,但意思是相當的老師,講師或榜樣。 Danmono  (段物) – A piece scored in Dans (sections) without vocals 一段沒有人聲的 Dans(部分)得分 Dōjikyoku (童子曲) – Children’s song. Most often called “dōkyoku” 孩子們的歌。 最常被稱為“dōkyoku” Dōjō (道場) – Hall used for martial arts training or a place of Buddhist practice or meditation. Used also in the sense of a place where shakuhachi is being taught. 大廳用於武術訓練或佛教徒練習或冥想的地方。 也用於教授尺八的地方。 Dōkyoku (童曲) – Children’s song 孩子們的歌 

       

      Fuke-shū (普化宗) – The Fuke sect of Rinzai Zen. The sect in which the shakuhachi playing komusō monks belonged. The founder is considered as being Pǔhuà (普化, Jap. Fuke) (c.800–66) from China, but no writings remains about the sect in China. It is written in Kyotaku Denki Kokujikai that the Japanese branch of the Fuke sect was founded by Shinchi Kakushin (心地覺心)(1207–98), who brought it from China. The use of shakuhachi as a tool for religious practice was implemented. 佛教臨濟禪宗。 演奏 komusō 和尚的尺八所屬的教派。 創始人被認為是來自中國的普化(日本佛教) (c.800-66),但是關於中國該教派的著作尚無。 在《 Kyotaku Denki Kokujikai》中寫道,佛教的日本

       

      分支是由心地覺心(Shinchi Kakushin,1207–98 年)從中國帶來的。 實施了使用尺八作為宗教實踐的 工具。 Fumen 譜面 – Music score 譜子 Furi 振り – A rapid meri/kari head dip.快速地俯仰點頭一下 Furi otoshi 振落 – Ending a phrase with a quick dip into meri以快速沉音在語氣結尾點頭一下 

       

      Gagaku (雅楽) – Court music played at the imperial court and Shinto temples. The music was introduced to Japan from China via Korea in the 7th century. 在皇宮和神道聖殿中演奏宮廷音樂。 該音樂在 7 世紀從中國經由韓國傳入日本。 Gaikyoku (外曲) – Lit: outside pieces. Pieces that are not honkyoku, thus therefore outside the repertoire of the komusō monks. This includes sankyoku, min’yō and shinkyoku. Today it refers mostly to sankyoku. 註:外部作品。 並非本國樂曲的作品,因此不在 komusō 僧侶的曲目範圍之內。 其中包括 sankyoku, 民謠和 shinkyoku。 今天,它主要指的是 Sankyoku。 Gakki (楽器) – Musical instrument. 樂器。 Gakufu (楽譜) – Musical notation 音樂符號 Gendai hōgaku (現代邦楽) – Contemporary Japanese music. In 1947 NHK radio broadcasting began using the term gendai hōgaku for music influenced by avant-garde music in the Western classical tradition. Gendai nihon ongaku (現代日本音楽) – Contemporary Japanese music. See also gendai hōgaku 當代日本音樂。 1947 年,NHK 廣播開始使用 gendaihōgaku 一詞來表達受西方古典傳統中前衛音樂影 響的音樂。 Gendai nihon ongaku(現代日本音楽)–當代日本音樂。 另見 gendaihōgaku Hachigaeshi (鉢返し) Returning the bowl. 歸還碗(鉢)。 Ha (派) – Faction. Used for example in Myōan Taizan-ha. Thus the Taizan Faction of the Myōan group of shakuhachi. 流派。 例如在明暗對山派中使用。 因此稱作尺八明暗的對山派。 Hate  – A light kind of honkyoku. Played in the afternoon when free from strict discipline of religion. 一種輕便的本曲。 下午在沒有嚴格的宗教紀律的情況下演奏。 Hitoyogiri (一節切) – An one node shakuhachi considered the missing link between the gagaku  shakuhachi and Fuke shakuhachi. It became popular between 14th and 18th century. The length varies but most often around 1 shaku 1 sun (circa 33.3 cm). Hōgaku (邦楽) – A term used today for all traditional Japanese musical. The term came to existence during the late Meiji era to differentiate between on one hand, Western music and on the other hand, Japanese music. The term was coined in 1907 by the creation of Hōgaku Inquiry Department (邦楽調査掛) at Tokyo Institute of Music (東京音楽學校). Hōki (法器) – Sacred tool. The shakuhachi was regarded a hōki and not gakki (musical instrument) before secularisation in 1871. It was considered a tool for spiritual training for the komusō monks. Honkyoku (本曲) – The traditional pieces in the repertoire of the komusō monks of the Fuke sect; lit Honte (本手) – The main body of a piece. A melodic development in higher register.               樂曲的主體。 高音聲部的旋律發展。 Hotchiku (法竹) – A term used by Watazumi Dōso Rōshi (海童道祖老師) to describe his unlined shakuhachi. Watazumi was highly conscious about the difference in philosophy between these two types of shakuhachi 

       

      and used therefore another term to describe his instruments. 

       

      Ichigetsuji (一月寺) – Ichigetsu temple temple was one of the main Fuke sect temples in the Kanto region together with Reihō temple. Ichi Ji Ichi Ritsu (一時一律) – One temple, one piece (tune?) Ichion Jobutsu  一音成仏 – One sound reaching enlightenment 一種聲音啟蒙 Iemoto (家元) – Family foundation. Term used to refer to the founder or current head master of a certain school of traditional Japanese art, including music. The iemoto system is characterized by a hierarchical structure and often the iemoto has supreme authority. 家庭基礎。 該術語是指某種日本傳統藝術學派(包括音樂)的創始人或現任宗主。 家元系統的特徵 在於層次結構,並且宗家通常具有最高權限。 Iki-nayashi (息ナヤシ) – Short glissandi as an ornament before or in the middle of a note produced by change the direction of the breath. 在所產生的音符之前或之中改變呼吸方向,以短的氣息摩擦作為裝飾音。 

       

      Ji (地) – A paste made of urushi, stone powder and water, which is used to build up the bore of the modern jinuri/jiari shakuhachi.  由生漆、砥石粉和水製成的糊狀材料,用於建造現代 jinuri / jiari尺八的孔內徑。 Jimori shakuhachi (地盛り尺八) – Shakuhachi where the tuning methods has been using ji in strategic places in the bore and not all over the bore as in jinuri shakuhachi. Jimori shakuhachi is also sometimes called spot-tuned shakuhachi. 尺八的調音方法已在鑽孔的重要位置使用漆,而不是像 jinuri 尺八那樣在整個鑽孔中使用漆。 Jimori 尺八有時也被稱為調音尺八。 Jinashi shakuhachi (地なし尺八) – Shakuhachi tuned without the use of ji, where only the natural bamboo remains. This was the traditional method of making shakuhachi during the Edo period. 尺八在不使用漆的情況下進行調音,其中僅保留天然竹子。 這是江戶時代製作尺八的傳統方法。 Jiari shakuhachi (地有り尺八) – See jinuri shakuhachi. Jinuri shakuhachi (地塗り尺八) – A shakuhachi with a mid-joint where the bore is built up with ji. This method of tuning and instrument making became the mainstream after the Fuke sect was abolished. 一個中繼的尺八,其中用漆構築了內徑。 在普化宗虛無僧被廢止之後,這種調音和樂器製作方法成 為主流。 Jiuta (地歌) – Music originally composed for shamisen最初為三味線創作的音樂 Jiuta sōkyoku (地歌箏曲) – Music composed for shamisen and koto為三味線和古箏創作的音樂 Jun shihan (準師範) – Often translated as teacher’s license. 通常翻譯為教師執照。 Karakara (カラカラ) – Shakuhachi playing technique where a percussive effect is achieved by hitting hole 1 (bottom finger hole). 尺八演奏技術,可通過擊打孔 1(底部指孔)來達到敲擊效果。 Kaede (替手) – Secondary arrangement of a piece樂曲第二聲部 Kan (甲) – Upper register甲音(提高八度) Keiko (稽古) – Practice, study. 練習,學習。 Keikoba 稽古場 – Space in which one practice. This may be the room where one receives lessons. 

       

      練習的空間。 這可能是一個可以上課的房間。 Ki (気) – Spirit or mood. In this thesis as with martial arts and Japanese arts in general ki refers to a spiritual energy. 精神或情緒。 在這篇論文中,與武術和日本藝術一樣,氣是一種精神能量。 Kari (カリ) – One of the two main head positions in shakuhachi playing with raised chin. To be played on the open holed ro tsu re chi ri etc.  尺八演奏抬高下巴的吹法(兩個主要位置之一)。 可以在每個音孔演奏。 Kokyū (胡弓) – Three-string bowed spike fiddle. The only bowed fiddle in Japan.二胡 Komi Buki (コミ吹き) – Big breath. Vibrato created by diaphragm. Representative for the repertoire of the Nezasaha. 大呼吸形成振動產生的顫音。根笹派曲目的代表手法。 Komusō (虛無僧) – Shakuhachi playing monks of the Fuke sect of Rinzai Zen. The komusō monks were wandering mendicant monks playing the shakuhachi for alms. 尺八飾演臨濟禪宗普化宗的僧侶。 Komusō 僧侶在遊走為演奏布袋尺八的乞食僧侶。 Korokoro (コロコロ) – Shakuhachi playing technique. A tremolo is created by alternatively opening and closing holes one and two. 尺八演奏技術。 通過交替打開和關閉孔一和二來創建顫音。 Kota (枯淡) – Refined simplicity. 精緻簡潔。 Koto (箏) – Japanese 13-string zither. 日本 13 弦古箏。 Kumiuta (組歌) – Pieces for Koto license Kyotaku (虛鐸) – Lit., hollow bell or bell without substance (often translated as empty bell). Name for shakuhachi used in the historical document Kyotaku Denki Kokujikai from 1795. Today a group of players formerly led by Nishimura Kokū (1915–2002) calls their instruments for kyotaku. Kyotaku Denki Kokujikai – [The legend of the empty bell translated to Japanese] from 1795 written by Yamamoto Morihide (山本守秀). It is claimed to be an annotation in Japanese of a 13th century Chinese book entitled Kyotaku Denki (虛鐸伝記). Nakatsuka Chikusen (1887–1944) was the first person to question its authenticity. The legend remains, however, the single most important work in the literature defining the identity of many shakuhachi honkyoku players. 

       

      Ma (間) – Lit., in between, space or interval. In musical terms it describes the silence between sound events. This is often described as vacuum plenum, and is an important part of Japanese musical aesthetics. 註:在間隔或間隔之間。 用音樂術語描述聲音事件之間的沉默。 這通常被稱為真空氣室,是日本音 樂美學的重要組成部分。 Madake (真竹) – A common type of bamboo in Japan, from which the shakuhachi is made. Latin: phyllostachys bambusoides 日本製作尺八常見的一種普通竹子。 拉丁語:phyllostachys bambusoides Mae-Uta (前歌) – Opening vocal section開幕曲 Mekura h?shi (目闇法師) – blind monks. 盲僧。 Meri (メリ) – Blow by putting the chin down, to lower the tone Shakuhachi playing technique describing the head positioning. In meri, the head is lowered and the lips are closer to the mouthpiece (utaguchi). This technique produces a sound, which has less volume and is considered having a ‘darker’ character. 下巴降低來吹氣,以降低音高位置的尺八演奏技巧。 在 meri,頭部降低,嘴唇靠近歌口(utaguchi)。 這種技術產生的聲音音量較小,被認為具有“較暗”的特徵。 Min’yō (民謡) – Folk song. The shakuhachi is widely used as accompaniment to min’yō. 

       

      Miyogiri (三節切) – A three-node shakuhachi. Considered being the link between the gagaku shakuhachi and Fuke shakuhachi alongside the hitoyogiri. Muraiki (ムライキ) – Lit., uneven breath. Shakuhachi playing technique producing a characteristic breathy sound. 註:呼吸不均勻。 尺八演奏技術產生獨特的呼吸聲。 Modes – Most Japanese traditional music use one of 3 pentatonic scale types: 模式-大多數日本傳統音樂使用三種五音階類型之一: Ritsu (律) is common in gagaku music and some min’yō. 

       

      Descending: D – e – G + A – b – D When ascending it may change to: D – f – G + A – c – D 

       

      In (陰) (from Chinese yin of yin-yang) or miyakobushi 都節 (urban melody/mode) is common in music from the Edo period including shakuhachi music. 

       

      Descending: D – eb – G + A – bb – D Ascending (some times): D – f – G + A – c – D 

       

      Y? (陽) (yang of yin-yang) or inaka-bushi  田舎節 (countryside mode or folk song mode) is most common in minyō  (folk song). 

       

      Descending: C – eb – F + G – bb – C Ascending: D – f – G + A – c – D 

       

      Another mode in Japan is the Ryūkyū mode from the Okinawa islands (south of mainland Japan). 

       

      Ryūkyū (琉球) C – e – F + G – b – C 

       

      Muraiki (ムライキ 斑息) – Lit., uneven breath. Shakuhachi playing technique producing a characteristic breathy sound. Musubi (結) – Tying up, concluding. Final section of a piece. 總結,結尾。 最後一段。 Myōanji (明暗寺) – Myōan temple, established within the compound of the Tōfukuji temple in Kyoto. Myōanji was founded by Kyochiku Zenji and was throughout the Edo period a prominent and influential centre of shakuhachi musicianship especially in the Kansai region. Myōanji remained the centre for the Fuke style shakuhachi playing in which spirituality continued to have great importance in shakuhachi playing. 

       

      Nagashi (流し) – Playing in the street Naka-uta  (中唄)  – Middle vocal section中段 Nara period (奈良時代) – 710–94. Nakatsugi (中継ぎ) – The attachable mid-joint on jinuri shakuhachi. jinuri 尺八上的可連接中段關節。 

       

      Nayashi (ナヤシ) – To begin pitch meri and rise to standard pitch Shakuhachi playing technique. A short bend in the beginning of a note, middle of a note most frequently produced by head movements. This can vary depending on the school. 開始 meri 音高和上升到標準音尺八演奏技巧。 音符開始音符的短彎,音符的中部最常見的是頭部移 動。 這可能因流派而異。 Neaji (音味) – Lit: Taste of sound describing tone colour. 註:描述音色的聲音味道。 Neiro (音色) – Tone colour. Nobekan (延べ管) – Shakuhachi made in one piece rather than in two attachable pieces, as is the norm today. There is thus no mid-joint. 尺八是一件式的,而不是兩件式的,這是今天的標準。 因此,沒有中繼。 Okitegaki Jūkikajō (掟書十基箇條) – Edict on the ten basic articles. Decree supposedly enacted by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Otsu (乙) – the low register on the shakuhachi 尺八的低八度 

       

      Ryū (流) – Refers to an artistic lineage and its accompanying style in an art form. In the case of shakuhachi, kinko ryū is the Kinko style of shakuhachi playing. 以藝術形式指代藝術世系及其伴隨的風格。 在尺八的情況下,琴古流是尺八演奏的琴古流風格。 Ryūha (流派) – Refers to a school within a ryū. 

       

      Sankyoku (三曲) – lit. three pieces. Chamber music of Japan from the Edo period. The instrumentation is: koto (13-stringed zither), shamisen (three-stringed long-necked lute) and shakuhachi. The shakuhachi replaced the koky? around the turn of the 20th century. Sarugaku (猿楽) – Early nō theatre popular during the 11th to 14th centuries. Shaku (尺) – Japanese measurement. 1 shaku = 30.30 cm Shakuhachi Sanbonkai (尺八三本會) – Three Shakuhachi Group. A shakuhachi group founded in 1964 across different ryūha by top players, Aoki Reibo II (b. 1935), Yamamoto Hōzan (1937 – 2014) and Yokoyama Katsuya (1934 – 2010). Shamisen (三味線) – Japanese three-stringed long-necked lute. Shihan (師範) – Often translated as a master licence. Shin hōgaku (新邦楽) – New Japanese Music. A term that arose in the late 1920s, which included genres such as Miyagi Michio’s music for Japanese instruments influenced by Western music Shinkyoku (新曲) – New pieces. This refers to 20th century pieces, thus neither honkyoku nor sankyoku. Shin nihon ongaku (新日本音楽) – New Japanese Music. A term used interchangeably with shin hōgaku. Shirabe 調 – To check the sounds and move into the proper frame of mind before performing Honkyoku. Exploring / Investigating. Can also just be a piece or the beginning of a piece. Shō (笙) – A Japanese mouth organ. Part of the gagaku ensemble. Shugyō (修行) – Training, self-cultivation, ascetic practice or pursuit of knowledge. Suizen (吹禪) – Lit: Blowing Zen. The act of playing the shakuhachi as an act of meditation. Although widely used, this word is, according to Tsukitani Tsuneko (conversation, 2007), a post-Edo period creation. Suizen-kai (吹禪會) – Lit: meeting of the Suizen [blowing Zen] group. Myōan temple gatherings where each 

       

      shakuhachi player play a piece in front of the altar. Sokyoku 箏曲 – Music originally composed for Koto. Sun (寸) – Japanese measurement. 1/10th of a shaku = 3.03 cm Suri (スリ) – Slide. Shakuhachi playing technique. A passing note with a short portamento to an intermediate pitch. 滑音。 尺八演奏技術。 具有短滑音的中間音符的通過音符 Suriage (スリ上) – A slide upwards 向上滑音 Suri sage (スリ下) – A slide downwards 向下滑音 

       

      Takane (高音) – Section of a honkyoku piece usually played in the upper octave, often containing the climax of the piece. Takuhatsu (托鉢) – Pieces played by Komuso when begging. Tamane (玉音) – Flutter tongue technique 顫動的舌頭技巧(花舌、喉舌) Tegoto (手事) – Musical Interlude 音樂插曲 Tegotomono (手事物) – Musical form with Tegoto 

       

      Utaguchi (歌口) – The sharp blowing edge of the shakuhachi 

       

      Yuri (ユリ) – Vibrato created by head movements頭部運動產生的顫音 Tateyuri (立ユリ) – vibrato created by  vertical head movements 頭部垂直運動產生的顫音 Yokoyuri (橫ユリ) – vibrato created by  horizontal head movements 水平頭部運動產生的顫音 Mawashiyuri (回ユリ) – vibrato created by  circular head movements 頭部圓周運動產生的顫音 Takeyuri (竹ユリ) – vibrato created by  moving the shakuhachi towards the chin 將尺八移至下巴產生的顫音 Kaeshiyuri (返ユリ) – vibrato created by  moving from mawashiyuri to yokoyuri 從 mawashiyuri 到 yokoyuri 創造的顫音 


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